If you wrote code like:
>>> x =  >>> y = x >>> y.append(10) >>> y  >>> x 
There are two factors that produce this result:
1. Variables are simply names that refer to objects. Doing y = x doesnâ€™t create a copy of the list â€“ it
creates a new variable y that refers to the same object x refers to. This means that there is only one object (the list), and both x and y refer to it.
2. Lists are mutable, which means that you can change their content.
After the call to append(), the content of the mutable object has changed from  to . Since both the variables refer to the same object, using either name accesses the modified value .
If we instead assign an immutable object to x:
>>>x = 5 # ints are immutable >>>y = x >>>x = x + 1 # 5 can't be mutated, we are creating a new object here >>>x 6 >>>y 5
we can see that in this case x and y are not equal anymore. This is because integers are immutable, and when we do x = x + 1 we are not mutating the int 5 by incrementing its value; instead, we are creating a new object (the int 6) and assigning it to x (that is, changing which object x refers to). After this assignment we have two objects (the ints 6 and 5) and two variables that refer to them (x now refers to 6 but y still refers to 5).
Some operations (for example y.append(10) and y.sort()) mutate the object, whereas superficially similar operations (for example y = y +  and sorted(y)) create a new object. In general in Python (and in all cases in the standard library) a method that mutates an object will return None to help avoid getting the two types of operations confused. So if you mistakenly write y.sort() thinking it will give you a sorted copy
of y, youâ€™ll instead end up with None, which will likely cause your program to generate an easily diagnosed error.
However, there is one class of operations where the same operation sometimes has different behaviors with
different types: the augmented assignment operators. For example, += mutates lists but not tuples or ints (a_list += [1, 2, 3] is equivalent to a_list.extend([1, 2, 3]) and mutates a_list, whereas some_tuple += (1, 2, 3) and some_int += 1 create new objects).
In other words:
â€¢ If we have a mutable object (list, dict, set, etc.), we can use some specific operations to mutate it and all the variables that refer to it will see the change.
â€¢ If we have an immutable object (str, int, tuple, etc.), all the variables that refer to it will always see the same value, but operations that transform that value into a new value always return a new object.
If you want to know if two variables refer to the same object or not, you can use the is operator, or the built-in function id().